Grenz-Fanteria di Frontiera Austriaca della Guerra dei Sette Anni, 1756–1763

Uniformi della Grenz-Fanteria Austriaca

The Austrian Military Border (Militärgrenze) was established in 1538 along the Austro-Ottoman border, when Kaiser Ferdinand I. offered sanctuary e permanent settlement to displaced Serbs (Rascian, Uskok) fleeing from the turchi, placing them under Austrian military administration. The Serb frontier farmers enjoyed freedom of faith e tax exemption in return for military service in the armata austriaca. In addition, they were permitted to raid e pillage settlements turche across the border. The tre Serb captaincies of Koprivnica, Križevci e Ivanic eventually formed the Varaždin general command.

On 12 settembre 1683, a relieving force under Polish King Jan III. Sobieski suprised e defeated l'armata turca at the Battle of Kahlenberg, thereby ending the second Siege of Vienna. Prince Eugene of Savoy's impressive victory at the Battle of Zenta, 11 settembre 1697, marked the turning point in the Austrian struggle against le turchi. Following the trattato di Karlowitz, 26 gennaio 1699, the Karlovac, Varaždin, e Banat general commands of the Military Border were created. During the reign of Imperatore Leopold I. the Slavonian border was established by Luigi Ferdinando Conte de Marsigli in 1702, from lands along the Save, Theiß, e Maros rivers, which were largely incorporated into Ungheria in 1747. General Adolf Buccow and, following his death in 1764, András Reichsgraf Hadik von Futak established the Transylvanian border, consisting of the Székely (1764) e Wallachian borders (1766). The cordon sanitaire of the Military Border was completed 1770 to 1787, ed a system of permanent cantonments was installed.

Soldatini

  • Pandour Fanteria, avanzando, 42 mm Irregular Miniatures LWSY25
  • Grenzers (Pandurs), 40 mm Matthias Manske
  • Standard-Bearer, 40 mm Nürnberger Meisterzinn Nr. 1004
  • Austrian Grenz Command, 28mm Crusader Miniatures SYA034
  • Austrian Grenz Characters e caduti, 28mm Crusader Miniatures SYA033
  • Austrian Grenz, avanzando, 28mm Crusader Miniatures SYA030
  • Austrian Grenz, scaramucciando, 28mm Crusader Miniatures SYA031
  • Pandours, scaramucciando, 28 mm Front Rank Figurines SABP15
  • Grenzer, 25 mm Old Glory SYWA020
  • Grenzer, avanzando, 25 mm Falcon Miniatures S-2007
  • Grenzer con musket, sparando, 25 mm Falcon Miniatures S-2008
  • Grenzers, sparando, 25 mm RSM95 SYWA-GRF
  • Pandour, 25 mm Eagle soldatini ASYW6
  • Pandour con tapering shakò, 25 mm Eagle soldatini ASYW6A
  • Pandour, kneeling, sparando, 25 mm Eagle soldatini ASYW6B
  • Pandour, pointing, 25 mm Eagle soldatini ASYW6C
  • Pandour, reloading, 25 mm Eagle soldatini ASYW6D
  • Pandour, inspecting sole, 25 mm Eagle soldatini ASYW6E
  • Pandour / Croat, avanzando, 25 mm Minifigs ASW15
  • Pandour / Croat Officer, 25 mm Minifigs ASW16
  • Austrian Grenzers, mixed posture, 20 mm Outland 20606
  • Grenzer, officer, 18 mm Eureka Miniatures 300SYW225
  • Grenzer, NCO/Sergeant, 18 mm Eureka Miniatures 300SYW224
  • Grenzer, bugler, 18 mm Eureka Miniatures 300SYW223
  • Grenzer, marciando, 18 mm Eureka Miniatures 300SYW221
  • Grenzer, scaramucciando, 18 mm Eureka Miniatures 300SYW222
  • Pandours, 15 mm Old Glory SYA-06
  • Grenzer, 15 mm Freikorps 15 ASY06
  • Grenzer Command, 15 mm Freikorps 15 ASY16
  • Croat o Pandour fanteria, avanzando, 15 mm Irregular Miniatures FSYAR18
  • Fanti di frontiera austro-ungherese (Cap), 15 mm Minifigs 33V
  • Gruppo comando austro-ungherese for 33V e 34V, 15 mm Minifigs 38V
  • Austrian Grenzers, 1:220 Baccus6mm SAU5
  • Grenzer ed ufficiali austriaci, 6 mm Adler Miniatures ADM7115
  • Austrian Grenzers (Croats), 1:300 Heroics & Ros MSY08

General Commands

  • Karlovac General Command (Croatian), 1699
  • Varaždin General Command (Serbian), 1699
  • Banat General Command, 1699
  • Slavonian General Command, 1702
  • Székely General Command, 1764
  • Wallachian General Command, 1766

Grenz-Infanterie-Regiment

Around 1750, the reggimenti fanteria di frontiera were re-organized into 16 fusilier companies, 2 grenadier e 2 rifle companies, which formed due battaglioni da campagna ed un replacement depot. Company strength was established at 100 men. Each field battalion also had a squadron of 130 ussari attached. In times of war, the grenadier companies were detached from their parent regiments to serve in the imperial Grenadiercorps.

  • Regimentsstab (regimental staff)
  • 1o Battaglione
    • Bataillonsstab (battalion staff)
    • 1a Compagnia di Granatieri
    • 1a Compagnia di Fucilieri
    • 2a Compagnia di Fucilieri
    • 3a Compagnia di Fucilieri
    • 4a Compagnia di Fucilieri
    • 5a Compagnia di Fucilieri
    • 6a Compagnia di Fucilieri
    • 1a Compagnia di Schützen (Tiratori)
  • o Battaglione
    • Bataillonsstab
    • 2a Compagnia di Granatieri
    • 7a Compagnia di Fucilieri
    • 8a Compagnia di Fucilieri
    • 9a Compagnia di Fucilieri
    • 10a Compagnia di Fucilieri
    • 11a Compagnia di Fucilieri
    • 12a Compagnia di Fucilieri
    • 2a Compagnia di Schützen (Tiratori)
  • o Battaglione (Depot)
    • Bataillonsstab
    • 13a Compagnia di Fucilieri
    • 14a Compagnia di Fucilieri
    • 15a Compagnia di Fucilieri
    • 16a Compagnia di Fucilieri

Battaglione Tschaikisten

The battaglione Tschaikist was a naval force protecting the riverine borders in the Slavonian e Syrmian frontier areas against smuggling e the spread of the bubonic plague. The unit remained on the military establishment of the Military Border after 1747, e redeployed to Titl in the area between the Danube e Theiß rivers in 1763. In 1764, the battalion establishment was increased from due to quattro companies. The Tschaikist battalion operated light rowed e sailed gunboats, imperial Freikriegsschiffe, armed con one heavy e several smaller guns. Tschaika gunboats (slavic for "lapwing"), were similar in construction to the Nassadist flatbottomed gunboats built nell'Ungheria. They proved much more suitable for riverine warfare on the Danube ed its navigable tributaries, than the large 40- to 64-gun ships of the Danube Flotilla which were lost by grounding without exception. Komárom Fortress nell'Ungheria became the key strongpoint, naval shipyard e repair facility of the battaglione Tschaikist.

In febbraio 1742, Obristwachtmeister (Major) bavarese Matthias Freiherr von Droste received permission to raise a compagnia franchi di Droste, operating due Tschaika gunboats, one armed con quattro e the other con seven light guns, to fight Austrian Tschaikas on the Danube. The flotilla bavarese did not survive long: the gunboats had to be disarmed e burned on 5 luglio 1742 to prevent their falling into enemy hands (SGBH, 106).

Uniformi della Guerra dei Sette Anni

Soldati of the Grenz-Regiments initially wore a variety of regional costume o folk dress, which was replaced by military uniforms "à la Husarde" after 1750. Karlstädter (Croat) e Banaler Grenz-Regiments wore hussar-style coats con pointed cuffs. Warasdiner (Serb) e Slavonian Grenz-Regiments were distinguished by round cuffs. The Grenzers wore brimless shakò, tight-fitting breeches ungheresi, short boots ungherese o laced Opanka sandals, e red overcoats. The soldiers were armed con fanteria muskets e cavalleria sabres. At the Battle of Kolin, 18 giugno 1757, fanteria prussiana was reportedly unnerved by the unusual sound dei cannoni reggimentali da 1 libbra employed by the Austrian Grenzers opposing them.

Reggimento Formazione Uniforme Distintivi Battaglie
I. (Karlstädter)
Likaner Regiment
1746 rosso verde Prag, Moys, Schweidnitz, Liebau, Wisternitz, Kunersdorf, Landeshut, Liegnitz, Glatz, Chemnitz
II. (Karlstädter)
Ottochaner Regiment
1746 rosso blu chiaro Prag, Welmina (Reschni-Auje), Gottleuba, Liebau, Kunersdorf, Liegnitz, Landeshut, Glatz, Meißen
III. (Karlstädter)
Oguliner Regiment
1746 blu giallo Lobositz, Prag, Welmina (Reschni-Auje), Gottleuba, Liebau, Kunersdorf, Liegnitz, Landeshut, Glatz, Meißen
IV. (Karlstädter)
Szluiner Regiment
1746 blu chiaro rosso Kolin, Kaltenberg, Berlin, Buchau, Meißen, Dresden, Torgau, Strehlen, Pretschendorf
V. (Warasdiner)
Kreutzer Regiment
1749 bianco verde Prag, Kolin, Striegau, Landeshut, Sebastiansberg, Meißen, Leutmannsdorf, Peilau
VI. (Warasdiner)
St. Georger Regiment
1749 bianco verde di erba Prag, Landeshut, Moys, Breslau, Liebau, Stolpen, Dresden, Maxen, Meißen, Berlin, Schweidnitz, Adelsbach, Burkersdorf, Peilau
VII. (Slawonisches)
Broder Regiment
1747 marrone nero giallo Kolin, Landeshut, Moys, Breslau, Dresden, Torgau, Grebeniz, Fischerberg
VIII. (Slawonisches)
Gradiskaner Regiment
1747 rosso blu Kolin
IX. (Slawonisches)
Peterwardeiner Regiment
1747 marrone nero rosso Landeshut, Schweidnitz, Grünberg, Kunersdorf, Maxen, Sauberdorf
X. (Banaler)
Erstes Banaler Regiment
1750 blu scuro rosso Prag, Kolin, Moys, Schweidnitz, Neisse, Grünberg, Meißen, Cosdorf, Dresden, Wittenberg, Leipzig
XI. (Banaler)
Zweites Banaler Regiment
1750 blu rosso Lobositz, Prag, Kolin, Welmina (Reschni-Auje), Nollendorf, Gottleuba, Schweidnitz, Meißen, Buchau, Strehlen, Torgau
XII. (Banater)
Deutsch-Banater Regiment
1747
XIII. (Banater)
Walachisch-Illyrisches Regiment
1747
XIV. (Siebenbürger)
Erstes Szekler Regiment
1764
XV. (Siebenbürger)
Zweites Szekler Regiment
1764
XVI. (Siebenbürger)
Erstes Walachisches Regiment
1766
XVII. (Siebenbürger)
Zweites Walachisches Regiment
1766
Tschaikisten-Bataillon
Titler Grenzbataillon, 1769
1740? blu chiaro rosso

The Grenzers were among the best e most experienced soldiers dell'armata austriaca. They fought primarily in open order, taking advantage of difficult terrain which favoured skirmishes. They played an important part in raids against enemy supply lines ed outposts.

Bibliografia

Domande più frequenti

Per ulteriori informazioni, per favore contatta la redazione di Rivista Military Miniatures nel Miniatures Forum.

Soldatini della Guerra dei Sette Anni