Carro Armato Inglese A.27 Cromwell, Carro Incrociatore

Carro Armato Inglese A.27 Cromwell VII, Carro Incrociatore Mk.VI, 1:87 Modellismo World Tanks Depot

The Cromwell tank, named after the guerra civile inglese leader Oliver Cromwell, was designed to replace the Crusader, Cruiser Tank Mk. VI, which was fast becoming obsolete. Designs of the new carro incrociatore were submitted in early 1941, e rushed into production as the A.24 Cavalier, carro incrociatore Mk. VII. The Cavalier was an unsuccesful carro armato design, which suffered primarily from its underpowered Liberty engine. A more powerful engine was designed, based on the Rolls-Royce Merlin engine used in Spitfire fighter aircraft, e the carro incrociatore design was modified to accommodate it. Since Rolls-Royce was completamente committed to the production of its Merlin aircraft engine, the manufacture of the motore di carro armato Meteor passed to the Rover Car Company. The initial carri armati A.27, designated A.27L Centaur, received the antiquated Liberty engine, until the production lines at Rover were made ready to produce the Meteor engine. Production of the A.27M Cromwell began in gennaio 1943, e the vehicle first saw action in giugno 1944 during Operation Overlord, lo sbarco alleato in Normandia.

Modellini

  • A.27M Cromwell III, 1:76 Crusader Models CMB02
  • A.27M Cromwell, 1:32 Airfx
  • A.27M Cromwell IV, 1:35 Tamiya 35221
  • A.27M Cromwell IV (11a Divisione Corazzata), 1:50 Corgi Toys CC60601
  • A.27M Cromwell IV, 1:48 Tamiya 32528
  • A.27M Cromwell IV, 1:72 Armourfast 99013
  • A.27M Cromwell IV, 1:76 Airfix 02328
  • A.27M Cromwell IV.C, 1:76 Cromwell Models A18
  • A.27M Cromwell IV.D, 1:72 Revell 03123
  • A.27M Cromwell IV.D, 1:76 MMS 906
  • A.27M Cromwell IV.D, 1:76 S&S
  • A.27M Cromwell, 20 mm Raventhorpe RTR72
  • A.27M Cromwell Close Support (95 mm), 20 mm Raventhorpe RTR74
  • A.27M Cromwell IV, 1:285 GHQ UK20
  • A.27M Cromwell, 1:300 Heroic & Ros B018
  • A.27M Cromwell VI (Europa occidentale, 1945), 1:50 Corgi Toys CC60607
  • A.27M Cromwell VI (VE Day Series, Europa 1945), 1:50 Corgi Toys HC60609
  • A.27M Cromwell VI.D, 1:76 MMS 909
    • A.27M Cromwell VI Close Support, Conversion Kit, 1:76 Vac-U-Cast C-116
  • A.27M Cromwell VII (5th RTR, Olanda 1945), 1:50 Corgi Toys CC60604
  • A.27M Cromwell VII, 1:60 S&S
  • A.27M Cromwell VII, 1:76 MMS 924
  • A.27M Cromwell VII, 1:76 Crusader Models CMB03a
  • A.27M Cromwell VII, 1:87 WTD 47
  • A.27M Cromwell VII.F, 1:76 Cromwell Models A21
  • A.27M Cromwell VIII, 1:76 Crusader Models CMB03b

The Cromwell was faster e had a lower profile than the Sherman tank. However, while the Cromwell's armour plate was of equivalent thickness to that of the Sherman, the plate was aligned vertically e provided less effective armour protection as a result. Because of its great speed, the Cromwell was used in divisional armoured reconnaissance reggimenti. The 7a Divisione Corazzata was completamente equipped con Cromwell tanks.

The Cromwell's 75 mm cannone da carro was an adaptation of the 6 pdr. cannone anticarro, designed to fire the same munizione as the Sherman tank nel servizio britannico. The 75 mm gun had a significantly lower muzzle velocity than the 6 pdr o 17 pdr cannone anticarro, but it could fire a very effective HE anti-personnel round.

Of the 4016 carri armati A.27 produced, 1408 were Centaurs e 2608 Cromwells. An additional 375 Centaur hulls were built to be equipped con torrette contraerei, but only 95 of these were actually completed, because the Allies enjoyed air superiority during the latter part of the war e there was little need for dedicated veicoli contraerei.

Caratteristiche Tecniche

  • A.27M Cromwell
  • Tipo: Cruiser Tank Mk. VIII
  • Motore: Rolls-Royce Meteor V12 petrol 447 kw (600 hp)
  • Suspension: Christie
  • Velocità: 64 km/h sulle strade
  • Autonomia: 280 km
  • Lunghezza: 6350 mm
  • Larghezza: 2908 mm
  • Altezza: 2833 mm
  • Peso: 27966 kg
  • Armamento: Ordnance QF 75 mm L.40. 10 Pdr. tank gun,
    mitragliatrice da 7,92 mm Besa in torretta e hull
  • Perforazione della carrozza a 0-100 m:
    • 115 mm con A.P./T. (1943)
    • 124 mm con A.P.C.B.C. (1944)
  • Equipaggio: capocarro, guidatore, cannoniere, caricatore, operatore radio
  • Produzione: 1943 – (2.608 units)

Utilizzo Storico

  • Armata Britannica, 1944–1950
    • 2o Battaglione Welch Guards, Divisione Corazzata della Guardia
    • 10o Reggimento Fucilieri Montati, 1a Divisione Corazzata Polacca
    • 6o Reggimento Airborne Reconnaissance (RAC), 6th Airborne Division
    • 8o Kings Real Irish Ussari, 7a Divisione Corazzata
    • 1o Reggimento Carri Reale, 7a Divisione Corazzata
    • 5o Reggimento Carri Reale, 7a Divisione Corazzata
    • 4o County of London Yeomanry (to luglio 1944), 7a Divisione Corazzata
    • 5o Royal Inniskilling Dragoon Guards (from luglio 1944), 7th Armd. Div.
    • 2o Northamptonshire Yeomanry (to 8 agosto 1944), 11a Divisione Corazzata
    • 15/19th Real Kings Ussari (from 8 agosto 1944), 11a Divisione Corazzata
  • Israel, 1948–1952

The Cromwell was superceded by the A.34 Comet heavy cruiser tank which entered servizio in dicembre of 1944. Carri armati A.27M Cromwell britannici last served nella Guerra di Corea nel 1950. They were used for training purposes thereafter, e many ended up as hard targets on firing ranges. In terms of armoured vehicle design, the Cromwell e the similarly designed Comet were a step back: both had vertical armour plate like the Tiger I tank, rather than the more protective sloped plate of the Panther, carro armato medio T-34, o A.16 Crusader.

Domande più frequenti

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Soldatini Britannici della Seconda Guerra Mondiale